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Interviewing Jane Weiner: “Losing sight” a documentary about myopia.

The following article is presented to you by Miguel García, Pablo Sanz & Jane Weiner
For all the general public.

Today we have the luck to interview a filmmaker, that has been working during the last years in a documentary on myopia. She had the patience and time to answer to all of our questions.

Jane Weiner
Jane Weiner

Ms. Weiner born in New York. She studied Biology and American History at San Francisco State University, where she graduated in English Literature and majored in Filmic Studies. She also taught communication at the University of Syracuse.

Jane Weiner began as a young filmmaker and nowadays she is well known for her filmographic and audiovisual works. Currently she is making a documentary film related to myopia.

There is no better blog than this to know more about her myopia documentary work!

Go straightforward to the trailer!  Click here!


Good morning, Ms. Weiner!
It is a huge pleasure to see you again. First of all, thank you very much for taking the time to conduct this interview.
I think that there is no better place than the International Myopia Conference to introduce us to your work.

  • Have you been previously in other editions of the IMC? Are you enjoying the experience?

Well, this is my third IMC.  I went first to California, then to China and now, here we are.  I really, really enjoy it!
 At my first IMC, I knew absolutely nothing about myopia, well I can’t say nothing about myopia, because I am myopic, but I knew nothing about eye science. Before my first IMC experience, in fact, I didn’t have time to read anything about the subject, so you can imagine, sitting through those complex lectures was really a challenge, quite a challenge.

But as it happens, I already knew many of people involved in eye science quite well and they were available to answer my questions and guided me through the basic eye science of Myopia. And then over the years, attending both International Myopia Conferences and the ARVOs in United States as well as some other conferences in Europe, I began to really, genuinely understand.  So, for the last 3 or 4 years I’ve had the privilege of studying eye science with the top professors around the world.

  • So, talking about the people…what do you think when you see so many people dedicating their research to the fight against myopia?

Well, my best friend in all the world is Josh Wallman, so I’ve know these people for a very long time, not as scientists but simply as friends, which is a different kind of relationship. Their work is absolutely amazing, but I didn ́t really understand most of it – and, the key to making a movie is that the filmmaker must understand the subject extremely well in order to translate the science into an audio visual experience using everyday language and images that a wide audience of all ages and backgrounds can easily understand.  I’m not working as a journalist — making interviews and editing them together — I’m trying to develop a very clear comprehensible story of what Myopia is and why the current epidemic presents a worldwide public health problem.

  • About the general concern… Do you think that the general public is aware of this problem and its possible causes and consequences in the future?

No, I don’t think the general public knows anything about myopia, in fact in the United States they don’t even use this word. They say ‘near-sighted’ or in England they use ‘short-sighted’.  And, many people don’t have a clue as to why they are wearing glasses.  I’ve heard so many people saying: “Yeah, I’m absolutely near-sighted, I can’t see far” but, when you look at their prescription, it is all plus diopters – so they must be ‘far-sighted’.

So you know, it’s just that people are not well informed by their eye doctors. They go and get an eye exam, get a prescription for eyeglasses and it ́s all magic!

  • Talking about your Myopia documentary…what drew you to telling this story?

My goal is to use images and small stories in conjunction with those images, with the voices of the experts telling the story. We will cover everything from birth to old age, and the main point of the film, although we say it very gently, is that this is a very, very dangerous subject.

  • Maybe with this documentary the general public is more concern about…?

If you say ‘glaucoma’ to the people it’s just a word, they don ́t know what it means. Even from my personal experience, my father had glaucoma and I knew he had to take eye-drops and he could not drive anymore but I didn ́t really know what that meant in terms of reduced vision…

I didn’t understand it at all, until I got it myself, and that’s the same for most people.

  • What was your prior knowledge about myopia?

My prior knowledge of myopia was that almost everyone in my family was myopic:  My father was strongly myopic and he was photographer, architect photographer. I knew that he had retinal detachment and glaucoma but I didn ́t know about its association to myopia.

  • During these years you’ve met some of the greatest researchers in the field, what have you been most surprised to learn about?

I think the most important thing I’ve learned was how serious this subject is and how difficult it is for the scientific and professional community to communicate this to the general public.  There is a real disconnect, even between the scientists and the practitioners and, then, onto the general public. A double disconnection…

  • When you started getting to know what scientists were discovering about myopia, has there been anything that surprised you a lot?

I try to think something that was really the most surprising… I actually do remember, yes… One of the most amazing things for me was that when I began to getting involved in this — I looked first to the Josh Wallman publications, I think the most amazing thing for me was to understand that he had discovered the importance of defocus in the periphery quite early on and that is only recently that contact lenses are being made to ‘manage’ the problem of myopia progression. The scientists weren’t thinking of solving the problem; they were just looking at what was occurring to make an eye myopic.  And we are, right now, at the nexus of where science, discovery, and practical applications come together.

  • Well, yes, there is some slowness to transform into something can be exported to the practice…

Yes, that ́s very slow.  It took many stages, first trying to control peripheral defocus with spectacles, understanding something… then, finding better ways to do it. And, as everything seems to happen in this particular science, discoveries all happen by accident. Those are the great stories!

  • Talking about the documentary…what was the biggest challenge in making the documentary film?

Technically the biggest challenge is that I decided to try to simulate different aspects of vision. Video and film are both two-dimensional while vision is three-dimensional, so that ́s a handicap of making a film. Working in digital you have little bit of room to modify the depth of field and depth of vision but I’m looking into using equipment that is truly three-dimensional in order to obtain a real taste of what is like to see with different eye modalities.

  • With this documentary, are you trying to show what being myopic means for the public?

Oh yes! Absolutely, the purpose for making the documentary is to get the word out about how dangerous any amount of myopia is, particularly in children.  I mean, I have spoken to many, many adults who have never in their life get an eye exam and then they start to have problems, so I say to everyone:  Even if you think you have no problems, go now, get an exam so at least you have a starting point, so that when something else happened you will know at what point you can say, when I was 20 years old, I saw it like this, and when I was 40 I saw like this. So that it gives you some basis for understanding where you are when something goes wrong.

  • Is there any deadline? When will the documentary be released?

I need to rise 500.000 € to make the film properly and I need another one 500.000€, because it’s quite an involved project: 1) a creative feature-length film for cinema distribution, 2) a one-hour TV version – using the same footage, which that is delivered to the public in a more straightforward, basic style, and 3) I’ll also make short little pieces for web distribution or that could be used in eye doctors’ waiting rooms, etc.  Plus using this three-dimensional equipment, we’re creating an educational exhibition for science museums where the people go and discover the different aspects of hyperopia, myopia, astigmatism, and the diseases associated with myopia – glaucoma, detached retina, macular degeneration and cataracts.

From the moment I acquire full funding, I set a deadline of 18 months after so, the time it takes to finish depends on when I am able to obtain the financing. At this point, we’re anticipating the release date to be Autumn 2019.

  • What are you working on next? Is it related to myopia?

It ́s funny, I take a lot of time to make each film. People that I worked with in France told me: “You have 6 weeks to go to Burgundy and film this subject”. And I said: “No, no, no, no…” I spent 3 years living there, meeting the people, and staying on there, filming almost every day…a little bit every day and really gathered an impressive story…so I don ́t really have much headroom left to think what the next project is because when I started this project I thought, “oh no problem, I know all the scientists, it will be very simple, they know what to say and we have a film…!” But first I had to learn a lot, it was like going back to school and then I realized that the project to do in the way that I wanted to do was not a low-budget film.

It turned into a large project, so right now I don ́t really think about what I am doing next, After this is over ideas will come to me but I don ́t have a wish list.

Once again thank you very much for your time. It has been a pleasure to have been able to conduct this interview.  We are really looking forward to watching your project.

All the best!

You are welcome! By the way, I love your blog!


Movie Trailer

LOSING SIGHT – Inside the Myopia Epidemic – a documentary by Jane Weiner.

 Disclaimer, all the rights from the trailer above are hold by the author Jane Weiner. The copy or reproduction in any way is not allowed unless explicit permission from her.

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Ophthalmic Workshop & Complementary Skill Course ’17

The following article is presented to you by Pablo Sanz and Miguel García
For all the general public.

During the last week of June, the MyFUN fellows were at the headquarters of Carl ZEISS Vision International GmbH (Beneficiary 06) in Oberkochen, Aalen.

There, the group received a guided tour through the company, the museum and took part in educational training about OCT, Biometry and Fundus cameras with a hands-on training with these devices.

 

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After 2 great days there, the group moved to Tübingen to have a joint complementary skill course with the Switchboard network. Legal awareness, ethics in biomedical research, intellectual property, properly writing scientific reports or how to keep a lab book were only few of the topics learned during this courses.

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To give an end to that week, some ESRs (Early Stage Researchers) shared their work in front of a more varied group of vision researchers in the Young Vision Research Camp.

 

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Hope you enjoy those pics as much as we do this week!


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The effects of outdoors on Myopia

The following article is presented to you by Pablo Sanz and Miguel García
Disclaimer: For all the general public and specialists, some technical knowledge might be required.

Let en-light our blog, pick our sunglasses and let´s talk about the influence of outdoor time on the onset, development as well as progression of myopia. Besides, as far as 100 years ago (1), some studies started to conjecture about ambient light and its impact on the development of the eye. Starting to be considered as plausible public action to stop myopia prevalence increase, especially in those areas with high risk of development such as East Asia, the topic triggered interest again.

For more in-depth treatment of the issue of outdoors effect we should keep in mind different terms such as time exposure and light intensity, because many factors could contribute to this “shielding effect“.

During the last years a large number of research studies investigated the hypothesis that time spent outdoors protects against the development and progression of myopia.

Since the beginning of this hypothesis, all researches pointed to this direction. Earlier, it was shown in chickens (2) and children that ambient light plays an important role at compensation of myopic defocus and onset of myopia. While at early stages in humans, it was though that physical activity could have a major input, Rose et al (3) showed that light conditions where the key.

To get a better overview on this matter we should introduce the sentence scientific evidence.


  • But what´s evidence?

In a scientific environment, there is no place for believes, and the evidence relies in the studies published and their repeatability. If we want to grade the evidence they give, we do so according to the type of article, as following pyramid illustrates.

Evidence piramyd
Fig 1. Pyramid of evidence

As pointed out by the pyramid, meta-analysis are the highest source of evidence in science. And a recent meta-analysis from Xiong et al, 2017 (4), analyzed over 25 studies and they concluded that time outdoors prevent the development, but has no effect on slowing progression of eyes that are already myopic.

Other studies that looked into the possible use of longer outdoor hours to prevent myopia (5) as public policies, concluded that an extra hour could have greater impact on the onset and development of myopia in children between 5 to 8 years. Similar recommendation were given by He et al 2015,(6) where they claimed that 45 min of outdoor activities for schools in China could prevented myopia onset.

“Although research about understanding the exact mechanism is still underway, based on current results approximately 3 hours of outdoor activity during a day may be considered protective against myopia.”

– Verkicharla, 2016 (7)

Continue reading The effects of outdoors on Myopia

What is Myopia?

The following article is presented to you by Pablo Sanz & Miguel García
Revisited 09.2017 by Nikolai Suchkov, Alessandra Carmichael & Neeraj K. Singh
Disclaimer: For all the general public, not technical knowledge is required.

Look around you – how many people wear glasses? Most of them suffer from near-sightedness, which is also known as “myopia”. This condition restricts the quality of their vision at a distance. It currently affects 20% of the population, and will rise to 50% worldwide.

Over 2000 years ago, near-sightedness was already known by the ancient Greeks as “myopos”, which referred to how myopic people squint their eyes to create a sharp and clear image. With this characteristic gesture, they are simulating a pinhole, that is, an artificial pupil of a smaller size. This pupil reduces the amount of blur on the retina but also the amount of light and the area you can see.

But what is myopia? Let’s begin with how our eyes work.

In a healthy eye, light rays from a distance enter the eye through the pupil, and are redirected to meet at the sensor located at the back of the eye, known as the “retina” and produce a sharp image. On the other hand, a mismatch between the focus point of the rays and the retina causes a blur. This can occur in front (Myopia) or behind (Hyperopia) the retina, as is shown below:

Raylight image formation

Note that this is an easy approximation, while even in the best ideal case, a point refracted by crossing a circle(pupil) is not a point. Far from this, due to the eye aberrations, this merged point is always a stain/blur.

So, myopia also known as short-sightedness or nearsightedness , constitutes a failure of matching image formation and receptors location, being the image formed in front of them as shown in the right scheme.

Using a more accurate definition, myopia has been defined as a common optical aberration of the eye in which the conjugate focus of the retina is at some finite point in front of the eye, when the eye is not accommodating.

Some symptoms of myopic subjects are: blurred distance vision or out of focus image, and deteriorated vision in low lighting conditions.


*Why they squint their eyes? With this characteristic gesture they are simulating a pinhole, reducing the amount of rays arriving to the eye and generating an artificial pupil of smaller size. This pupil reduces the size of the blur on the retina but also the amount of light and the area you can see.


As this post is supposed to be an easy explanation on myopia, further comprehension about aberrations of a myopic eye can be found in other entries:

Myopia and eye aberrations (Not available yet)


  • What is the prevalence of myopia?

Knowing what this refractive error is, how does it affect the global population? Currently 1.6 billion people worldwide suffer from myopia and it is estimated to increase to 2.5 billion people by 2020 . (1)(2)

1-s2-0-s0161642015002808-gr5
‘Myopia Prevalence, based in birth and educational level in Europe, Meta-Analysis’ Click in the image for more information.

Furthermore, the prevalence of myopia varies with age and other factors: genetic, ethnicity, geographic location, environmental factors, lifestyle, etc. Learn more about at the following post:

Risk Factors 

Current recommendations for Myopia (Not available yet)

Near-sightedness typically appears at an early age, between 6 and 12 year olds, and the mean rate of progression is approximately 0.50 Diopters per year, based on studies of mostly Caucasian children. (3, 4)

The prevalence of myopia is approximately 25% in the western population and much higher (70% to 90%) in different regions of Asia (5, 6). Among 20 to 40 year olds, this prevalence is about 35% to 40% and decreases to about 15% to 20% among those in their 60s, 70s, and 80s. (7, 8)

All these values led us to think that this optical condition is emerging as a major public health concern, generating an economic burden for each affected individual (9). In order to prevent the rapid growth of myopia, researchers around the globe are developing new strategies and treatment modalities, backed by the economic support from major companies and government funding bodies worldwide.


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  • References.
(1) Kempen JH, et al. The prevalence of refractive errors among adults in the United States, Western Europe, and Australia. Arch Ophthalmol. Apr 2004;122(4):495-505.

(2) Holden BA, et al. Global Prevalence of Myopia and High Myopia and Temporal Trends from 2000 through 2050. Ophthalmology. 2016 May;123(5):1036-42.

(3) Jensen H. Myopia progression in young school children and intraocular pressure. Doc Ophthalmol 1992;82:249-55.

(4) Parssinen O, Hemminki E, Klemetti A. Effect of spectacle use and accommodation on myopic progression: final results of a three-year randomised clinical trial among schoolchildren. Br J Ophthalmol 1989; 73:547-51.

(5) Shortt AJ, Allan BDS. Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) versus laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) formyopia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; (2):CD005135 3. Dirani M, Islam FMA, Baird PN. The role of birth weight in myopia – the Genes in Myopia twin study. Ophthalmic Res 2009; 41:154–159

(6) Saw SM, Tong L, Chua WH, Chia KS, Koh D, Tan DT et al. Incidence and progression of myopia in Singaporean school children. Invest Ophthalmol.Vis.Sci. 2005; 46:51-7.

(7) Vitale S, Ellwein L, Cotch MF, et al. Prevalence of refractive error in the United States, 1999-2004. Arch Ophthalmol 2008; 126:1111-9.

(8) Katz J, Tielsch JM, Sommer A. Prevalence and risk factors for refractive errors in an adult inner city population. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1997; 38:334-40.

(9) Zheng YF et al. The economic cost of myopia in adults aged over 40 years in Singapore. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Nov 13;54(12):7532-7.

1st Annual Meeting

The following article is presented to you by Pablo Sanz and Miguel García
For all the general public, some statements may require deeper knowledge of science.

During the last week of November, on the shores of the Neckar River (Tübingen, Germany) and just a few minutes walking from the place where Kepler observed its first eclipse though a projection of one hole at the vaults of Tübingen Cathedral, our First Annual Meeting was held consisting of all the early stage researcher (ESR), supervisors and members of the MyFUN program.

Throughout this meeting, the project teams met together, stroked up a friendly conversations and suggestions about how each project can starts out with the best possible resources and support available.

The main purpose of each of these projects remain to try and achieve better knowledge and answers regarding the myopia development, considering three specific research Work Packages (WP):

  • WP1: Unknown features of the visual feedback-control loop for eye growth. (Projects: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6).
  • WP2: Biological features of the visually-guided signalling cascades controlling eye growth. (Projects: 7, 8, 9, 10).
  • WP3: Visual performance, adaptation and training. (Projects: 11, 12, 13, 14).

During all the Early Stage Researchers presentations we could get some of the specific objectives, and the key activities regarding all the projects. All this information is listed below:

  1. Accommodation and undercorrection.

ESR Name: Dmitry Romashchenko. Supervisors: Linda Lundström; Peter Unsbo.

Purpose: To study the interactions between the position of the image shell, determined by the accommodation, and the retinal image quality, which is used by the retina to adjust the rates of eye growth. The data will be analyzed for single cases in high details rather than statistical measurements for average values.
The main target is to know in detail what happens with accommodation during undercorrection and with no correction of myopia and how this affects the defocus error signal in the peripheral retina.

  1. Why suddenly myopia?

ESR Name: Andrea Carrillo Aleman. Supervisors: Frank Schaeffel; Marita Feldkaemper; Sandra Bernhard.

Purpose: to analyse accommodation behaviour, using infrared photorefraction, and clarify whether the development of myopia may start because accommodation gives up to compensate for the lenses, generating an error signal on the retina.

  1. More progression with new spectacles?

ESR Name: Miguel Garcia Garcia. Supervisors: Siegfried Wahl; Arne Ohlendorf.

Up to date the single vision spectacles wear are the most used way to correct myopia, besides the different availability of treatments to slow its progression. For that reason, a deeper knowledge of how them act over the eye structures is required.

Purpose: to test the ocular structures in young subjects, just becoming myopic, in close detail by daily or at least weekly measurements with low coherence interferometry, OCT, and photorefraction, before and after new corrective lenses are prescribed.

  1. Crystalline lens and myopia.

ESR Name: Geethika Muralidharan. Supervisors: Susana Marcos; Carlos Dorronsoro; Sergio Barbero; Daniel Pascual; Enrique Bustos.

Purpose: to investigate statistical differences in lens thickness, and lens geometry between myopes and emmetropes, as well as their potential relationships with the magnitude of refractive error, ACD, ACV and AL and investigate the astigmatic axis of the lens surfaces in relation to the corneal astigmatic axis, and the degree of compensation of corneal and internal astigmatism in myopes and emmetropes.

  1. Sign of defocus and eye growth.

ESR Name: Najnin Sharmin. Supervisors: Brian Vohnsen.

Purpose: to study monocular and binocular accommodation with fast wavefront sensing and adaptive optics (>100 Hz) by setting up a stimulation system that will automatically eliminate size, contrast, and brightness clues by use of tuneable liquid filters. It will be tested on myopes if there are marked differences in response between the two groups.

  1. Near work and myopia.

ESR Name: Manto Chouliara. Supervisors: P. Artal; P. Prieto; J. Tabernero; J. Fernandez.

Purpose: to study the image defocus on the retina with yet unachieved precision and resolution in both myopic and emmetropic subjects, and in both eyes at the same time. The question of whether there is a significant “lag of accommodation” during binocular reading will be answered.

  1. In vivo markers of myopia development: changes in fundal reflectance.

ESR Name: Barbara Swiatczak. Supervisors: Frank Schaeffel; Marita Feldkaemper.

Purpose: To find out whether changes in fundal reflectance relate to metabolic state and biochemical signals associated with changes in eye growth, we will sample fundal reflectance in chickens in high detail while their eyes are covered with diffusers, negative lenses and positive lenses for variable periods of time. Using a custom developed procedure to measure the spectral fundal reflectance in alert chickens (derived from white light photorefraction), we will determine the time courses and magnitude of changes in fundal reflectance for different light exposures in chickens.

  1. Inter-individual variability of myopia.

ESR Name: Sandra Gisbert Martinez. Supervisors: Frank Schaeffel; Marita Feldkaemper; Sandra Bernhard.

Purpose: to track the development of deprivation myopia in individual chickens by at least one measurement of ocular biometry and refractive state per day. The slope of refractive change over time will be determined (the gain). Individual gains will be correlated with the patterns and frequency ratios of the different cone types as determined by the analysing the oil droplets in retinal flatmounts.

  1. Inheritance of the peripheral optics of the eye.

ESR Name: Dibyendu Pusti. Supervisors: P. Artal; P. Prieto; J. Tabernero; J. Fernandez.

Purpose: to be able to find out in how far the pattern of peripheral aberrations and refractive errors is inherited. These data have important implication for the understanding of the roles of peripheral defocus on the development of myopia. They also have implications for the prediction of the risk of myopia in humans.

  1. Stiles-Crawford Effect and Myopia.

ESR Name: Alessandra Carmichael Martins. Supervisors: Brian Vohnsen.

Purpose: A  system  that  allows  measurements  of  the  psychophysical  and  the  optical Stiles‑Crawford  effects for the foveal  and parafoveal regions, respectively, will be built. Both techniques will be applied on healthy subjects and on subjects with different degrees of myopia. Previous studies have indicated a slight reduction in directionality for highly myopic eyes with psychophysical techniques but this remains to be confirmed with objective measurements. With this project, such decrease will quantify and clarify its relationship to accommodation as well as to emmetropisation.

  1. Myopia, cycloplegia, and training of accommodation.

ESR Name: Pablo Sanz Diez. Supervisors: Siegfried Wahl; Arne Ohlendorf.

Purpose: to study the plasticity of accommodation in myopes and to investigate if accommodation can be trained or shifted and whether the level of tonic accommodation is paradoxically higher, and why. During this project a continuously recording photorefractor sampling at 100 Hz that emits a sound with the frequency coupled to accommodation tonus will be used. Emmetropic and myopic subjects will be trained to achieve their most relaxed accommodation state and differences in their adaptable amplitudes will be determined.

  1. Visual performance with bifocal correction to inhibit myopia.

ESR Name: Neeraj K. Singh. Supervisors: Prof. Susana Marcos

Purpose: An Adaptive Optics and Simultaneous Vision Simulator (SimVis) developed in the host laboratory will be used to mimic experimentally bifocal corrections of different patterns (concentric vs angularly segmented; centre vs peripheral near add; different addition magnitudes) and measure visual performance of young observers with bifocal corrections: accommodation, visual acuity & visual perception.

The lag of accommodation with bifocal corrections and variation in visual performance across different bifocal corrections (different patterns and near additions) will be determined. The investigators aim to propose the most suitable bifocal correction to interfere with myopia development.

  1. Adaptive optics technology to assess myopia development and correction.

ESR Name: Nikolai Suchkov. Supervisors: B. Jaeken; J. Fernandez; P. Artal

Purpose: To develop a new generation of adaptive optics visual simulator, allowing to measure high ametropes and pathologic patients. The device will allow to measure virtually any eye, and to simulate a solution, correcting both low and high order aberrations. For the increased dioptric range, a tunable lens will be used, allowing to modulate defocus in a range of ± 10D, meanwhile a spatial light modulator will be compensating for the rest of aberrations. The stimulus for subjective measurements will be provided by a digital light processing projector. In order to simulate solutions for different pupil sizes, a motorized exit pupil will be introduced.

  1. Asymmetry in the effects of defocus on vision.

ESR Name: Petros Papadogiannis. Supervisors: Linda Lundström; Peter Unsbo.

The detection of the sign of defocus by the foveal as well as by the peripheral retina is essential for the control of both accommodation and eye growth. The amount of additional blur cannot provide this information since it is symmetrical when the same amount of defocus is imposed in either direction. However, asymmetries in visual performance under positive and negative defocus have been found for both foveal and peripheral vision in myopes, but not in emmetropes .

Purpose: The foveal and peripheral vision will be evaluated with different amounts and signs of defocus for myopic and emmetropic subjects under natural conditions. As the chromatic and higher order aberrations (more irregular optical errors) of the eye can give sign-dependent blur, the same measurements also have to be performed under controlled optical conditions. For this purpose, a peripheral adaptive optics system will be used to remove any asymmetries in the optical blur during the vision evaluation. The system will also be updated for high-resolution foveal measurements.

During the following days, the first Winter School took place, giving the chance to the ESR to enter widely in some threads due lectures from PIs and experts and some workshops at the AugenKlinik (EUKT), Tübingen.

Here we let you some pictures from the lectures, and the social events from afterwards.

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